India has a multi-party system, where political parties are classified as national, state or regional level parties. The status of party is accorded by the Election Commission of India, and the same is reviewed occasionally. All parties are registered with the Election Commission.
Q1. How can a regional party become a national/state party?
A regional political party can become eligible to be recognised as a national party if it is able to fulfill any of the following terms:
- The regional party has been able to win 2% of the seats in the latest held Lok Sabha (11 seats) from a minimum of three different states.
- In an election to the Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly,if the regional party is able to win 4 lok sabha seats and has polled 6% of the total valid votes in at least four states.
- The regional party is recognized as a state party in a minimum of four states in the country.
Q2. Who holds the highest power in the Government?
As per article 53 (1) Of the constitution, the highest power is vested in the hands of The President of India. The President enjoys all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers lower ranked than him. The President is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the Prime Minister of India (head of government) and Council of Ministers (the cabinet) as described in Article 74 of the Indian Constitution.
Q3. What are the local body elections which happen in India?
Municipality Elections Nagar Palika is an urban local body that is in charge of administering smaller district cities and bigger towns with a population of 100,000 or more.
Elections to Nagar Panchayat also known as Notified Area Council,exist in urban centres with more than 11,000 and less than 25,000 inhabitants.
Elections to Zila Parishad or The District Council is an elected body whose members are elected on the basis of adult franchise for a term of five years. It needs to have a minimum of 50 members with a maximum limit being 75.
Village Panchayat Elections : It's mandatory for a village having a population of 500 to have a Gram Panchayat. Its members are elected by the villagers for a period of five years. The elections of the Gram Panchayat are conducted by state election commissioner in alliance with the District Collector and Tehsildar.
Election to Panchayat Samiti is composed of elected members of the area including the heads of the Gram Panchayats within the block area, the elected members of the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and the state legislature who belong to the block.
Q4. What is Universal Adult Suffrage?
Q5. What is the difference between general elections and assembly elections?
General Elections are held every five years, for the selection of Members of Parliament. The MPs are the representative of people who are elected directly by the people on the basis of Universal Adult Suffrage. General Elections are conducted in the entire country in different phases. Once the elections have happened in all the states, the results are declared. The leader of the political party, which wins the national majority, is then selected to head the nation (Prime Minister of the country) to become the Chief Minister of the state.
Assembly Elections are held state wise in India every 5 years and in this the Indian electorates choose the members of the Vidhan Sabha (or Legislative Assembly). The elected members are called MLAs. The assembly elections are never carried out in same year across all states and union territories. The party which wins with majority can form government in the state. The majority party then elects a candidate who has contested election from the state
Q6. Who can vote in India?
Q7. What is article 370?
Q8. How a Political party is registered?
Q9. What is the process of selection of chief minister?
Q10. What are EVMs?
Q11. What is the outside support to Govt.?
Q12. What was the total strength of Lok Sabha in 1st general election?
Q13. What are the main categories of electors in India?
Electors are citizens who are eligible to vote in India. They are of three main types or categories–
- General Electors– residents of India who can vote in a polling booth
- Service Electors– residents of India who work for the Indian Government away from their home or are in the Armed Forces
- Overseas Electors– non-residential Indians who have not taken citizenship of any other country
Q14. Who is eligible to be registered as a general elector?
To be eligible to be registered as a general elector, the person has to be:
- A citizen of India- 18 or more years of age as on the 1st day of the year when the electoral roll is revised,
- Residing in India-Enrolled in the electoral roll of India or the polling area of the Indian constituency where he/she resides.
Q15. What is Form 6?
Q16. From where Form 6 can be obtained?
There are two ways of obtaining Form 6–
The website of Election Commission of India (www.eci.nic.in/) has the form in the PDF format. It can be easily downloaded and printed.
Form 6 is also available at the office of the Electoral Registration Officer or the assistant or the Booth Level Officer of the polling area where the elector resides. There is no charge for obtaining this form.
Q17. What documents are required to be enclosed with Form 6?
While filling out Form 6, the elector needs to submit it along with certain documents. Here is a list of required documents–
- Single and recent passport sized photograph (should be affixed in the space provided in the form)
- Photocopy of age proof (like birth certificate, school mark sheet or admit card that mentions the electors date of birth, passport, Aadhar card, PAN card, and driving license)
- Photocopy of address proof (like current pass book issued by a post office or bank, ration card, driving license, passport, income tax assessment order, letter delivered through the Indian Postal Department, recent telephone, gas or electricity bill and latest rent agreement).
Q18. Can a non- citizen of India contest elections in India?
Q19. Who is an overseas (NRI) elector?
Q20. Can an NRI settled in foreign land become an elector of electoral roll in India?
Q21. Can a non-citizen of India become a voter in the electoral rolls in India?
Q22. Who is eligible to be registered as a voter?
Eligibility to be registered as a voter in India are as follows–
- Person has to be a citizen of India.
- He/she must be 18 or more years of age, as on the year of the electoral roll revision
- He/she should hold proof of residence in India no matter where he is living at the moment.
Q23. What are NOTA?
Q24. What is VVPAT?
Q25. Can a person confined in jail vote in an election?
Q26. How much is the security deposit for an election?
Q27. Which candidates lose the deposit?
Q28. Is a candidate free to spend as much as he likes on his election?
Q29. Can anyone vote more than once, even if his name is included (wrongly) at more than one place?
Q30. What is the penalty if a candidate does not file his account of election expenses?
Q31. What is the procedure for political party registration?
The procedure for political party registration is as follows –
- The Election Commission issues a proforma for new political parties. It can be downloaded from the official website or obtained in person from the Commission's office in New Delhi
- The application should be as per the prescribed proforma, neatly typed having the political party's letter head.
- The application should be accompanied with a demand draft of Rs. 10,000/-, which is the non-refundable processing fee. The demand draft should be in favour of the Under Secretary, Election Commission of India, New Delhi.
- The application should mention the party's memorandum, list of rules and regulations, members and their details, particulars of bank account and PAN number issued in the party's name, and about their constitution.
- The application and associated documents should reach the Secretary to the Election Commission of India within 30 days from the party's formation date.
Q32. What are the criteria for recognition of a party?
The criteria for recognition of a political party in the State level is as follows-
- The party should be active in the political circuit for five years continuously,
- The party should have a mandatory certain fraction of representation in the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of the State.
- or The party should have won at least six percent of the total number of valid votes for the last general State election.
- The criteria for recognition of a political party in the National level is as follows –
- The party should be recognized in atleast four Indian states, and should continue to engage in political activity regularly.
Q33. What are the roles of ECI?
The Election Commission of India is an autonomous organization under the Constitution of the country that was formed to ensure free and fair elections in the country. It takes on multiple roles for ensuring that elections are conducted without any error across every nook and corner of India. Here is a list of roles of the ECI–
- Registration and maintenance of the electoral rolls.
- Educating voters about their rights and process of voting
- Registration of political parties
- Regulation of laws for the political parties
- Issuance and marking of polling areas and constituencies
- Appointment and maintenance of officers working in each and every polling booth and area
- Managing the technological aspects of voting